Beck, Jeffrey
Beverley, Capt. Harry
Beverley, Major Robert
Bosley, Sophia
Crowson, Robert
Crowson, William
DeWalt, Daniel Sr.
DeWalt Daniel, Part II
Durck (Derrick), Simon
Fouracres, John
Fouracres, Mary Ann
Fox, Adam
Hatcher, Elder Israel
Hatcher, Reuben Sr.
Hatcher, William
Hixe, John
Krebil, Jakob
Koone, Nicholas
Kuhn, Benedictus
Magill, William II
Martin, Martin
McCarter, James
McInturff, Christopher
McInturff, Israel Sr.
Meckendorfer, Johannes
Mosby, Edward
Ogle, John (of Delaware)
Ogle, Thomas
Ogle, Thomas J.
Owenby, James
Ownby, John
Porter, Ambrose
Ragan, Richard
Ragan, Timothy
Reagan, Daniel Wesley
Robinson, Christopher, I
Robinson, William
Shultz, Dr. Martin
Shultz, Valentine
Sims, Capt. William
Sitton (Sutton), Joseph
Stapleton, Robert
Stentz, Johan Heinrich
Sutton, John
Webb, Merry II
Weigand, Michael
Woodson, Dr. John and Sarah
Wormeley, Elizabeth

Ancestor of the Month

March 2009 


Nicholas Koone (Kuhn)

b. c1753      d. 06 or 26 Dec 1831


Our ancestor Nicholas Koone is a second generation American.  His father, Benedictus Kuhn was “The Immigrant” for our branch of the Kuhn family in America, but son Nicholas was born here.


Parents and Family


Although we do not know “The Immigrant” Benedictus Kuhn’s actual birth date, he was probably born c1725 in Dielstorff, Germany. Nicholas’ paternal grandparents were probably Heinrich Kuhn and Regula Zebelf, but this, too, is unverified.  As a young man Benedictus married Christiana Rook in Germany, and in 1744 the couple had a son, George Adam Kuhn.


Palatine Persecution


The Kuhn family was part of the great Palatine immigration to America in the mid 1700’s.  The Palantine region of Germany and Switzerland fell under horrible wars and religious persecution.  Queen Anne of England offered sanctuary to the oppressed refugees and provided passage to the colonies in New England and in South Carolina for many of them.  Unknown to the refugees who would take up this offer in SC, the sanctuary to be provided would be located in a buffer zone between the hostile Indians to the north and the already established British colonists along the coast.  In other words, the new German immigrants would be the first line of defense for their British neighbors to the South.  In New England, too, the refugees were given land that would make them a line of defense against possible Indian attacks.


Journey to America


Nicholas’ father, mother, and brother George Adam made the journey from Germany to Holland to England and finally to America.  The journey was long and hard.   Just crossing the Atlantic usually took two months, and many died on the trip.  (Legend has it that Nicholas was born on the voyage to America, but that is basically just the kind of romantic tale we like to hear about our ancestors.  He was actually born after his family arrived—exactly when, we’re not sure.)


South Carolina had advertised in Germany and England for new settlers from the Palantine region.  The state promised 50 acres to each head of household for each family member brought to SC to settle.  The Kuhn family traveled on the ship Upton and arrived in Charleston (Charles Town at that time) in 1752 just when a hurricane was hitting the area.  (Modern authorities have determined that the 1752 storm was probably a Category 4 hurricane.)  What a welcome to their new homeland!


To receive the promised acreage, on 7 Nov 1752 Benadictus had to petition the government.   His petition contained his reason for wanting to live in SC. He said he had come to SC after “hearing of the benefits in settling in his Britannie Majs’ Dominions of America and [after hearing] that great encouragement was given by the province to foreign protestants.”  About 7 months later, on 13 June 1753, Benedict received his promised land.  Benedict Kuhn/Keetin. 150 acres 13 June 1753, near Crims Creek. [Plat 12:51) On UPTON wife & 1 son George Adam 8.”  (If our Nicholas had indeed been born aboard the Upton, the Kuhn family would have received 200 rather than 150 acres.  His birth must have occurred after his father petitioned for the promised acreage.)


Other German settlers had already started a settlement in the Crims Creek area near Pomaria, SC, and had been there since 1749.  It has been reported that Benedictus made the trip to SC hoping to join relatives who had already settled in the forks of the Broad and Saluda rivers in Newberry County.  The land Benedictus and his family received was located in this settlement area near St. John’s Lutheran Church.  This area would later become the Newberry District of SC.  Because of the numbers of German immigrants settled there, the area was also called the “Dutch Fork.”  Not long after the Kuhn’s arrival in their new homeland, probably 1753 or later, our Nicholas was born, and several years later sister Susannah was added to the family.  


The Kuhns had been persecuted for their religion in Germany, and probably because of that, they kept strongly to their religion.  In 1794 a petition from “Sundry Inhabitants Minister Elders and Members of a Christian Congregation Residing in that part of Orangeburgh and Ninety Six Districts called the fork of Broad and Saluda Rivers” asked that they be incorporated “under the Name and Denomination of the German Lutherian [sic] Congregation of St. John, in the fork of Broad and Saluda Rivers....” Among the signers of this petition was Benadict Kuhn.  (Now that provokes a problem.  Benadictus Kuhn reportedly died in 1790.  How did he sign a petition in 1794?  Neither George or Nicholas had a son named Benedict, and as far as I could discover, none of their grandchildren did either.)


Life in South Carolina


Times were difficult in SC during the 1700’s, and families had to be self sufficient.  The German immigrants were accustomed to adversity, however, and did well.  They had to provide everything for themselves.  They cleared land, built homes and farms, planted seeds and grains, raised cattle, pigs, and horses, wove their own cloth from cotton they had grown or sheep they had shorn.   Education was whatever they were able to provide for their children themselves.  Often their only textbook was the Bible.


Usually the families cleared 5 or 6 acres for their house and farm.  We can expect that the Kuhn family did the same.  Most houses were only 1 or 2 rooms, and in the beginning they often had dirt floors.  Windows were usually not available and light was provided by an open door.   The houses were usually made of logs, which caused two problems in construction:  1) the logs had to be about the same size in order to build the walls, and 2) in order to find similar sized logs, the wood often had to be rolled or carried great distances.  Building a settler’s cabin was hard, back-breaking work.  Of course, the longer the settlers lived in the area, the more the homes improved.


Luckily, for ten years after acquiring their land, the settlers in SC did not have to pay taxes; in lieu of taxes, however, they were expected to perform certain civic duties.  For example, travel in the backwoods areas of SC was difficult.  Roads were poor and, as in other colonies, men who lived along the roads were expected to keep them in repair.  This was one of the required duties.


In addition to keeping roads passable, landowners were expected to serve in the militia.  Every white male settler was expected to provide arms for himself and his white male servants (if he had any).  These arms included:

a serviceable gun, a cover for the lock, a cartridge box and at least four ounces of powder, a shot pouch with shot in proportion, a belt, a ball of wax sticking to the end of his cartridge box to defend his arms in rain, one worm and picker, four spare flints, a bayonet, sword or hatchet

These arms were to be kept in the home for protection and were to be brought to the muster field for inspection when called for.  All able bodied men between 16 and 60 could be called to drill with their companies as many as 6 times per year.  Usually, however, unless there was an emergency, the men were called only once a year for a regimental muster. 


Nicholas grew up in this “hard life” situation.  When he became a young man he realized that he could provide a good service for his neighbors and a good living for himself if he could meet some of the settlers’ needs.  He thus set out to acquire land on a river to build a grist mill.  In 1773 when he was about 20 years old, Nicholas purchased land on Crim’s Creek from George Hollman.  On the deed, Nicholas is listed as a “millwright,” so he had either already worked in someone else’s mill, or, since his father owned land on Crim’s Creek, his father Benedictus may have had a mill there himself.  In any event, by 1773 Nicholas was already known as a millwright.




Crim’s Creek is near what was to become Newberry, SC.  Sometime as a young man, Nicholas met and married Maria Magdalena (Mary) DeWalt (b.1760-d. 1844) who had grown up in Newberry.  Mary was the daughter of Daniel and Susannah Krebil DeWalt.  The DeWalts had come to the Newberry area from Pennsylvania, and like the Kuhn family, were Germans from the Palantine area.  (To find out more about the DeWalts, read the article about Daniel DeWalt in the Archives. )   Mary was the second of two DeWalt daughters to bear the name Maria Magdalena.  The first Maria was born 15 Aug 1756 and died 22 Apr 1760.  The second Maria (our ancestor) was born about 1760 and died about 1844.  Since the first Maria died at around 3 or 4 years of age, her new sister—who was born in Newberry—was probably named in her honor.  In her father Daniel DeWalt’s will—written in 1776 at the beginning of the war—Mary is mentioned as Magdalena.  Later, in her mother’s will and in her brother Peter’s will, she is called Mary Koone.


Exactly when Nicholas and Mary were wed is unclear, but son George was born in 1778, so the couple may have married around 1777 near the beginning of the Revolutionary War.  In addition, 1777 found Nicholas “and wife” selling the Crim’s Creek property Nicholas had purchased earlier from George Hollman.  This sale may have provided money to finance their move to North Carolina.  They may have wanted to start out on their own or they may have been moving further into the wilderness for land or possibly to escape the Revolutionary War.   (Some of the fiercest fighting in the Revolution was in SC.)  In addition, Mary’s brother, Daniel DeWalt, Jr. was a Loyalist during the Revolutionary War.  Not only did he appear on the list of Tory militia in 1783, he was actually an officer in the British army.  He served as a Paymaster and achieved the rank of Lieutenant in 1779.  He was evacuated from Charles Town with the British Army, went to England and stayed there for about two years. Daniel’s association with the British could have caused problems with his relatives and may have had a part in causing his sister and her husband to move to NC.  Although Rutherford, NC was on the Indian frontier when the Revolution began, in the beginning the settlers there were basically Loyalists.   Most switched sides, however, when Royal Governor Martin incited the Indians to raid pioneer settlements.


(Mary’s brother Daniel was back in Newberry by 1790, for he appears on the 1790 census and is listed as owning 9 slaves.  His father died about 1788, so the Daniel on the census is Daniel, Junior, not Senior.  Also listed on the 1790 census in Newberry were Benedictus Kuhn, George Kuhn (Nicholas’ brother) and Ulrich Kuhn (Nicholas’ nephew.)  Benedictus must have died shortly after the census (although he was supposed to have signed the 1794 church petition.)  Also, Benedict’s wife sold her husband’s land to their son, George in 1791, so Benedictus was probably dead by then.)


Move to Rutherford County, NC


In any event, Nicholas and Mary did move to Rutherford County, NC where they purchased land on Cedar Creek and opened another grist mill.  They were there by at least 1784 at the war’s end, for son Peter was born in Rutherford County that year. Nicholas was listed on the 1790 census for Rutherford County, NC.


Rutherford County was a huge place.  Originally the name of the area was Tryon County.  It had been named after Royal Governor William Tryon (1729-1788), but people had come to hate him.  Thus, in 1779 the area was divided into two counties, and the name was changed from Tryon to Rutherford and Lincoln.   The land was desirable and its western borders seemed to go to infinity.  Today there are about 16 counties that have been carved from the original Rutherford county.  Modern day Rutherford County is located on the border of NC and SC, but Nicholas and Mary may have lived a greater distance away.  Buncombe County, which was their address for a while, was a former part of Rutherford, and is located near present day Asheville.


Residents in western NC were expected to participate in civic activities just as they had in SC.  In addition, people who lived along the streams were expected to keep them passable for small boats.  The First Broad, Second Broad, and Green Rivers presented a better method of travel than the bad roads.  These streams were used until the 1840’s as a method of getting produce and farm products to market. Nicholas and his sons all probably had to work on the streams since all lived on or near them.  (In general, boats could only be used on some streams when the water was high.)




Nicholas and Mary eventually became the parents of at least five children.


  1. George Koone (b. 1778 in SC-d.19 July 1860 Mountain Creek, Rutherford County, NC) m. on 7 November 1804 in Rutherford County, NC. to Annester Ownby (b 14 Nov 1785-d.?)  Annester was the daughter of James and Joanna Sims Ownby, who are also our ancestors
  2. Peter Koone (b.1784 in Cathy’s Creek, Rutherford County, NC-d. c1848 in Rutherford County, NC).  m. on 19 October 1811 in Rutherford County, NC. to Susannah Ownby (b.12 Dec 1793-d.?)  Susannah was the daughter of James and Joanna Sims Ownby.  Peter served in the War of 1812.
  3. Rachel Koone (b. c1790/91-d.?)
  4. Mary Jane “Granny“ Koone,  (our ancestor) (b. 1793 Cedar Creek, Rutherford County, NC-d.1881 in Greenbrier, Sevier County, TN) m.  on 17 February 1812 in Rutherford County, NC to John Ownby (b. 4 Apr 1791-d.3 Sep 1854).  John was the son of James and Joanna Sims Ownby.  The nickname “Granny” usually meant that the woman so designated was a midwife.  John and Mary Jane moved to Sevier County, TN in 1833.  They settled in the Glades community.
  5. Susannah Koone (b. 1796-d.?)  never married

(Notice that at least three of Nicholas and Mary’s children married children of James and Joanna Sims Ownby.)

Because of the harshness and severity of life along the frontier, life within the family was doubly important.  It was the family that provided the settlers with social interchange.  According to Rutherford County Historian Clarence Griffin, "Church was a relief from loneliness. Families did not scatter widely as they do now, but brothers and sisters settled near one another and helped one another in time of need and took care of their parents cheerfully. Under such conditions the comradeship and affection growing out of family relationship did much to sweeten and enrich life….” 

Later Life

Not a great deal of information is available about Nicholas and Mary from this point on.  Nicholas did appear on the 1790, 1800, 1810, 1820, and 1830 census reports for Rutherford County, NC.  His sons George and Peter were on the 1830 census, too.


In 1802 Nicholas, Mary, and their son George sold all their interest in Benedictus Kuhn’s estate in SC to Nicholas’ brother George Koone.  George paid them $100.  George himself died in 1821, leaving all his land and possessions to his wife, children, and grandchildren.  His brother Nicholas was not mentioned in his will.


Nicholas died on either 06 or 26 December 1831 in Rutherford County, NC. (Some sources say his death occurred 06 Dec 1831, but I lean toward the date in the death notice published at the time.) He was 78 years old.  (If he left a will, I was unable to find it.)  Nicholas' death notice appeared in the North Carolina Spectator and Western Advertiser, Rutherfordton, NC, 31 December 1831.  It reads: "On Bill's Creek, in this county, on the 26th inst., Mr. Nicholas Coon, aged 83 years."  (Of course the age in the death notice is incorrect, as it would have placed his birth date before 1753.  Had he been born in 1748 as this notice indicates, his father would have received 200 acres of land rather than 150 when the family arrived in SC.  If he had been born in 1748, Nicholas would also have been listed on the ship’s list of passengers from Germany in 1752.   However, I trust the newspaper’s death date since that date was only a few days before the issue was published.  On the other hand, if Nicholas died one day after Christmas, it seems reasonable that that date would have been easily noted and remembered; maybe 06 1831 is correct after all.)  Nicholas’ wife Mary outlived him about 13 years and died about 1844 at age 84.  The couple is buried in Rutherford County, NC, at the Koone Cemetery.


Nicholas Koone was Papaw’s great great grandfather.  If you are Eli McCarter’s great, great grandchild, Nicholas Koone is your 6 great grandfather.

Line of Descent from Nicholas Koone to Eli McCarter

Nicholas Koone (1853-1831) + Maria Magdalena DeWalt (760-1844)

Mary Koone (1793-1881) + John Ownby (1781-1857)

Mary Ownby (1814-186) + Thomas McCarter (1811-1888)

Thomas Hill McCarter (1846-1923) + Marriah Reagan (1842-1923)

Rev. Eli McCarter (1886-1955) + Mary Elizabeth Hatcher (1889-1969)




“Benedictus Kuhn.” Looking for a Horsethief.   www.horsethief.info   (This website seems to have been removed from the web.)


“Benedictus Kuhn.”  Smokykin.com. http://www.smokykin.com/tng/getperson.php?personID=I48313&tree=Smokykin


“Benedict Kuhn Family.”  http://dutchforkchapter.org/html/kuhn_1.html


Clark, Murtie June.  Loyalists in the Southern Campaign of the Revolutionary War.  Vol. 1.  Baltimore:  Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.  1981. p. 48.


“Crims Creek.” http://genealogytrails.com/scar/newberry/crims_creek.htm



compiled by  Siegbert Frick & Carl W. Nichols



“Formed in 1799, Rutherford County once covered all WNC”  From The Forest City Courier's Golden Anniversary edition    August 1, 1968  http://remembercliffside.com/history/the_county/formed_in_1799.html


from Documents Relating to Indian Affairs, May 21, 1750-August 7, 1754, a part of the Colonial Records of South Carolina series, edited by William McDowell, Jr. in Columbia, SC Archives Department, 1958:



Garman, Gene.  “The Poor Palatines” www.sunnetworks.net/~ggarman/palatine.html


“History of Rutherford County.”  http:/www.rutherfordcountync.gov/history.php


“Koone.”  The Common Thread  http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3037323&id=I589051851ss


Lambert, Robert Stansbury. South Carolina Loyalists in the American Revolution. 284, 301


“Mary Jane “Granny” Coone.”  Smokykin.com


Meyer, Rachel.  “Who Were the Palatines?”  www.rootsweb.com/~nyherkim/history/pala.html


“Nicholas Koone.”  Smokykin.com  http://www.smokykin.com/tng/getperson.php?personID=I9398&tree=Smokykin


“Nicholas Koone and Mary DeWalt.”  Looking for a Horsethief  www.horsethief.info  (this website seems to have been removed from the web)





Sharpe, Bill.  “Rutherford Swapped Farming for Industry.”  From The State Magazine, 31 August 1963.



“South Carolina Battles in the American Revolution”



“The Last Will and Testament of George A. Koon deceased”  State of South Carolina, Newberry County, Recorded Will Book H, pages 347-349

US Census—1790, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830




























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